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IQ--and heredity--Don't shoot the messenger

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  • IQ--and heredity--Don't shoot the messenger

    Factor Analysis of Population Allele Frequencies as a Simple, Novel Method of Detecting Signals of Recent Polygenic Selection: The Example of Educational Attainment and IQ
    Synopsis

    Weak widespread (polygenic) selection is a mechanism that acts on multiple SNPs simultaneously. The aim of this paper is to suggest a methodology to detect signals of polygenic selection using educational attainment as an example. Educational attainment is a polygenic phenotype, influenced by many genetic variants with small effects. Frequencies of 10 SNPs found to be associated with educational attainment in a recent genome-wide association study were obtained from HapMap, 1000 Genomes and ALFRED. Factor analysis showed that they are strongly statistically associated at the population level, and the resulting factor score was highly related to average population IQ (r=0.90). Moreover, allele frequencies were positively correlated with aggregate measures of educational attainment in the population, average IQ, and with two intelligence increasing alleles that had been identified in different studies. This paper provides a simple method for detecting signals of polygenic selection on genes with overlapping phenotypes but located on different chromosomes. The method is therefore different from traditional estimations of linkage disequilibrium. This method can also be used as a tool in gene discovery, potentially decreasing the number of SNPs that are included in a genome-wide association study, reducing the multiple-testing problem and required sample sizes and consequently, financial costs.

    Results

    Tables 1a and 1b report frequencies of alleles associated with higher educational attainment (“beneficial” for short) for the 14 populations of 1000 Genomes and the 11 HapMap populations (list-wise deletion of missing data). Frequencies of the 10 SNPs were averaged for each population, so as to obtain a single reliable value (or polygenic score) that also avoided the problem of multiple comparisons. The polygenic score is reported in the last column. The results are similar across the HapMap and 1000 Genomes data sets: East Asian populations (Japanese, Chinese) have the highest average frequency of “beneficial” alleles (39%), followed by Europeans (35.5%) and sub-Saharan Africans (16.4%).

    {snip}

    Discussion
    The national ranking for scores on standardized tests of educational attainment closely mirrors the gradient observed in frequencies of genes associated with this construct. East Asians have the highest frequencies of alleles beneficial to educational attainment (39%) and consistently outperform other racial groups both within the US and around the world, in terms of educational variables such as completion of college degree or results on standardized tests of scholastic achievement. Europeans have slightly lower frequencies of educational attainment alleles (35.5%) and perform slightly worse in terms of educational attainment, compared to East Asians. On the other hand, Africans seem to be disadvantaged both with regards to their level of educational attainment in the US and around the world. Indeed, Africans have the lowest frequencies of alleles associated with educational attainment (16%).
    Attached Files
    Last edited by txtebow; 01-09-2014, 03:45 PM.

  • #2
    Hey you KOOLAID SWILLING LEFTISTS

    READ THIS (although you likely won't understand)

    "Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) whose associations with intelligence seem to be robust because they have been replicated in several independent studies were chosen as representative of intelligence increasing alleles..."

    now Read it again:

    "Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) whose associations with intelligence seem to be robust because they have been replicated in several independent studies were chosen as representative of intelligence increasing alleles..."


    Get it? Got it? GOOD.

    Comment


    • #3
      AMERICAN INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT

      Q: When is a recovery not a recovery?
      A: When it’s a bubble.

      Q: When is a Bradley not a Bradley?
      A: When it’s a Chelsea.

      Q: When is a correction not a correction?
      A: When it’s a crash.

      Q: When is a Syrian rebel not a rebel?
      A: When it’s Al Qaeda.

      Q: When is a tomato not a tomato?
      A: When it’s a Monsanto.

      Q: When is a dollar not a dollar?
      Wrong question: When was a dollar a dollar?

      mhgaffney

      Comment


      • #4
        and if you did not get that one, try this...




        WHAT EVERY PIGEON KNOWS

        The camera-toting tourist
        from Peoria ascends the granite steps,
        enters the hallowed space under the great rotunda
        and is struck dumb.
        Awe stirs within his breast...

        But does Mr. Tourist think to place an ear
        on the marble slab at his feet and listen
        for the dreep....drip....dreep....drip
        of water eighty feet down
        slowly dissolving limestone under the Capitol?

        Does he feel the one-ton foundation stone
        shifting another fraction of a millimeter
        under the Washington Monument?

        Does he sense the weeds
        pushing up wildly through cracks
        in the hot asphalt
        out on Pennsylvania Avenue?

        Does he sniff the fetid afternoon breath off the Potomac
        rustling through the city out of joint,
        or see it slip like a spatula
        under the audacious rag
        that calls itself "paper of record"
        left behind on a park bench
        near the Lincoln Memorial
        by a government employee
        on his noon lunch break?

        How to express the delicacy of lift-off
        as page after page unfurls on the breeze,
        lazy leaves loose in the wind...

        Head over end skips the op-ed page,
        catches a gust, blooms like a sail
        and skuds
        randomly across a wide sidewalk

        where pigeons pecking
        become a fluster of wings
        as the ground moves beneath them,
        the leading wave of an 8.5 trembler
        from the ring-of-fire,
        the ripples fanning out across
        the reflecting pool and
        through the naked city...


        mhgaffney

        Comment


        • #5
          Originally posted by txtebow View Post
          Factor Analysis of Population Allele Frequencies as a Simple, Novel Method of Detecting Signals of Recent Polygenic Selection: The Example of Educational Attainment and IQ
          Synopsis

          Weak widespread (polygenic) selection is a mechanism that acts on multiple SNPs simultaneously. The aim of this paper is to suggest a methodology to detect signals of polygenic selection using educational attainment as an example. Educational attainment is a polygenic phenotype, influenced by many genetic variants with small effects. Frequencies of 10 SNPs found to be associated with educational attainment in a recent genome-wide association study were obtained from HapMap, 1000 Genomes and ALFRED. Factor analysis showed that they are strongly statistically associated at the population level, and the resulting factor score was highly related to average population IQ (r=0.90). Moreover, allele frequencies were positively correlated with aggregate measures of educational attainment in the population, average IQ, and with two intelligence increasing alleles that had been identified in different studies. This paper provides a simple method for detecting signals of polygenic selection on genes with overlapping phenotypes but located on different chromosomes. The method is therefore different from traditional estimations of linkage disequilibrium. This method can also be used as a tool in gene discovery, potentially decreasing the number of SNPs that are included in a genome-wide association study, reducing the multiple-testing problem and required sample sizes and consequently, financial costs.

          Results

          Tables 1a and 1b report frequencies of alleles associated with higher educational attainment (“beneficial” for short) for the 14 populations of 1000 Genomes and the 11 HapMap populations (list-wise deletion of missing data). Frequencies of the 10 SNPs were averaged for each population, so as to obtain a single reliable value (or polygenic score) that also avoided the problem of multiple comparisons. The polygenic score is reported in the last column. The results are similar across the HapMap and 1000 Genomes data sets: East Asian populations (Japanese, Chinese) have the highest average frequency of “beneficial” alleles (39%), followed by Europeans (35.5%) and sub-Saharan Africans (16.4%).

          {snip}

          Discussion
          The national ranking for scores on standardized tests of educational attainment closely mirrors the gradient observed in frequencies of genes associated with this construct. East Asians have the highest frequencies of alleles beneficial to educational attainment (39%) and consistently outperform other racial groups both within the US and around the world, in terms of educational variables such as completion of college degree or results on standardized tests of scholastic achievement. Europeans have slightly lower frequencies of educational attainment alleles (35.5%) and perform slightly worse in terms of educational attainment, compared to East Asians. On the other hand, Africans seem to be disadvantaged both with regards to their level of educational attainment in the US and around the world. Indeed, Africans have the lowest frequencies of alleles associated with educational attainment (16%).
          What a beautiful piece of tortured logic. Take two completely independent phenomena that are both correlated with ethnicity and claim connection.

          Comment


          • #6
            Originally posted by gyldenlove View Post
            What a beautiful piece of tortured logic. Take two completely independent phenomena that are both correlated with ethnicity and claim connection.
            Why not, liberals do that with global warming, cooling, climate change(pick your flavor of the month)all the time.

            Comment


            • #7
              Originally posted by barryr View Post
              Why not, liberals do that with global warming, cooling, climate change(pick your flavor of the month)all the time.
              Ahh, no, they don't.

              But trying to educate you on the science is a waste of time.

              Comment


              • #8
                Originally posted by W*GS View Post
                Ahh, no, they don't.

                But trying to educate you on the science is a waste of time.
                , yes you do, meanwhile having nothing to say about China and India. You're frauds and hypocrites.

                Comment


                • #9
                  Originally posted by gyldenlove View Post
                  What a beautiful piece of tortured logic. Take two completely independent phenomena that are both correlated with ethnicity and claim connection.
                  Tortured logic? The only tortured logic is your failed attempt to inject your politically correct biases into SCIENCE because the findings don't fit in with a particular narrative.

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Originally posted by gyldenlove View Post
                    What a beautiful piece of tortured logic. Take two completely independent phenomena that are both correlated with ethnicity and claim connection.
                    It must be pure coincidence that those who routinely score the highest in IQ have split the atom and put a man on the moon, while those who routinely score the lowest are over represented on police blotters and in prisons.

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Originally posted by txtebow View Post
                      It must be pure coincidence that those who routinely score the highest in IQ have split the atom and put a man on the moon, while those who routinely score the lowest are over represented on police blotters and in prisons.
                      And as racist trolls on the Intertubes.

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Originally posted by gyldenlove View Post
                        What a beautiful piece of tortured logic. Take two completely independent phenomena that are both correlated with ethnicity and claim connection.
                        No - Global warming is actually caused by the alarming reduction in the overall number of pirates:

                        http://www.forbes.com/sites/erikaand...lobal-warming/


                        Simultaneity does not imply causality.

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Originally posted by BroncsRule View Post
                          No - Global warming is actually caused by the alarming reduction in the overall number of pirates:

                          http://www.forbes.com/sites/erikaand...lobal-warming/


                          Simultaneity does not imply causality.
                          Cell phones are caused by cancer.

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Originally posted by txtebow View Post
                            It must be pure coincidence that those who routinely score the highest in IQ have split the atom and put a man on the moon, while those who routinely score the lowest are over represented on police blotters and in prisons.
                            Why are you dragging Germans and Brits into this? They aren't part of the study at all.

                            By that token I would say money causes intelligence. Those with high incomes tend to have a high proportion of alleles associated with being white, and those who are poor tend to have a high proportion of alleles associated with being black or Hispanic.

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Originally posted by txtebow View Post
                              It must be pure coincidence that those who routinely score the highest in IQ have split the atom and put a man on the moon, while those who routinely score the lowest are over represented as bigots and racists, on police blotters and in prisons.
                              FYP and you're welcome.

                              Comment

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