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Old 01-09-2014, 03:42 PM   #1
txtebow
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Default IQ--and heredity--Don't shoot the messenger

Factor Analysis of Population Allele Frequencies as a Simple, Novel Method of Detecting Signals of Recent Polygenic Selection: The Example of Educational Attainment and IQ
Synopsis

Weak widespread (polygenic) selection is a mechanism that acts on multiple SNPs simultaneously. The aim of this paper is to suggest a methodology to detect signals of polygenic selection using educational attainment as an example. Educational attainment is a polygenic phenotype, influenced by many genetic variants with small effects. Frequencies of 10 SNPs found to be associated with educational attainment in a recent genome-wide association study were obtained from HapMap, 1000 Genomes and ALFRED. Factor analysis showed that they are strongly statistically associated at the population level, and the resulting factor score was highly related to average population IQ (r=0.90). Moreover, allele frequencies were positively correlated with aggregate measures of educational attainment in the population, average IQ, and with two intelligence increasing alleles that had been identified in different studies. This paper provides a simple method for detecting signals of polygenic selection on genes with overlapping phenotypes but located on different chromosomes. The method is therefore different from traditional estimations of linkage disequilibrium. This method can also be used as a tool in gene discovery, potentially decreasing the number of SNPs that are included in a genome-wide association study, reducing the multiple-testing problem and required sample sizes and consequently, financial costs.

Results

Tables 1a and 1b report frequencies of alleles associated with higher educational attainment (“beneficial” for short) for the 14 populations of 1000 Genomes and the 11 HapMap populations (list-wise deletion of missing data). Frequencies of the 10 SNPs were averaged for each population, so as to obtain a single reliable value (or polygenic score) that also avoided the problem of multiple comparisons. The polygenic score is reported in the last column. The results are similar across the HapMap and 1000 Genomes data sets: East Asian populations (Japanese, Chinese) have the highest average frequency of “beneficial” alleles (39%), followed by Europeans (35.5%) and sub-Saharan Africans (16.4%).

{snip}

Discussion
The national ranking for scores on standardized tests of educational attainment closely mirrors the gradient observed in frequencies of genes associated with this construct. East Asians have the highest frequencies of alleles beneficial to educational attainment (39%) and consistently outperform other racial groups both within the US and around the world, in terms of educational variables such as completion of college degree or results on standardized tests of scholastic achievement. Europeans have slightly lower frequencies of educational attainment alleles (35.5%) and perform slightly worse in terms of educational attainment, compared to East Asians. On the other hand, Africans seem to be disadvantaged both with regards to their level of educational attainment in the US and around the world. Indeed, Africans have the lowest frequencies of alleles associated with educational attainment (16%).
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Old 01-09-2014, 03:55 PM   #2
txtebow
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Default Hey you KOOLAID SWILLING LEFTISTS

READ THIS (although you likely won't understand)

"Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) whose associations with intelligence seem to be robust because they have been replicated in several independent studies were chosen as representative of intelligence increasing alleles..."

now Read it again:

"Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) whose associations with intelligence seem to be robust because they have been replicated in several independent studies were chosen as representative of intelligence increasing alleles..."


Get it? Got it? GOOD.
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Old 01-09-2014, 04:46 PM   #3
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AMERICAN INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT

Q: When is a recovery not a recovery?
A: When it’s a bubble.

Q: When is a Bradley not a Bradley?
A: When it’s a Chelsea.

Q: When is a correction not a correction?
A: When it’s a crash.

Q: When is a Syrian rebel not a rebel?
A: When it’s Al Qaeda.

Q: When is a tomato not a tomato?
A: When it’s a Monsanto.

Q: When is a dollar not a dollar?
Wrong question: When was a dollar a dollar?

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Old 01-09-2014, 04:47 PM   #4
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and if you did not get that one, try this...




WHAT EVERY PIGEON KNOWS

The camera-toting tourist
from Peoria ascends the granite steps,
enters the hallowed space under the great rotunda
and is struck dumb.
Awe stirs within his breast...

But does Mr. Tourist think to place an ear
on the marble slab at his feet and listen
for the dreep....drip....dreep....drip
of water eighty feet down
slowly dissolving limestone under the Capitol?

Does he feel the one-ton foundation stone
shifting another fraction of a millimeter
under the Washington Monument?

Does he sense the weeds
pushing up wildly through cracks
in the hot asphalt
out on Pennsylvania Avenue?

Does he sniff the fetid afternoon breath off the Potomac
rustling through the city out of joint,
or see it slip like a spatula
under the audacious rag
that calls itself "paper of record"
left behind on a park bench
near the Lincoln Memorial
by a government employee
on his noon lunch break?

How to express the delicacy of lift-off
as page after page unfurls on the breeze,
lazy leaves loose in the wind...

Head over end skips the op-ed page,
catches a gust, blooms like a sail
and skuds
randomly across a wide sidewalk

where pigeons pecking
become a fluster of wings
as the ground moves beneath them,
the leading wave of an 8.5 trembler
from the ring-of-fire,
the ripples fanning out across
the reflecting pool and
through the naked city...


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Old 01-13-2014, 01:30 PM   #5
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Quote:
Originally Posted by txtebow View Post
Factor Analysis of Population Allele Frequencies as a Simple, Novel Method of Detecting Signals of Recent Polygenic Selection: The Example of Educational Attainment and IQ
Synopsis

Weak widespread (polygenic) selection is a mechanism that acts on multiple SNPs simultaneously. The aim of this paper is to suggest a methodology to detect signals of polygenic selection using educational attainment as an example. Educational attainment is a polygenic phenotype, influenced by many genetic variants with small effects. Frequencies of 10 SNPs found to be associated with educational attainment in a recent genome-wide association study were obtained from HapMap, 1000 Genomes and ALFRED. Factor analysis showed that they are strongly statistically associated at the population level, and the resulting factor score was highly related to average population IQ (r=0.90). Moreover, allele frequencies were positively correlated with aggregate measures of educational attainment in the population, average IQ, and with two intelligence increasing alleles that had been identified in different studies. This paper provides a simple method for detecting signals of polygenic selection on genes with overlapping phenotypes but located on different chromosomes. The method is therefore different from traditional estimations of linkage disequilibrium. This method can also be used as a tool in gene discovery, potentially decreasing the number of SNPs that are included in a genome-wide association study, reducing the multiple-testing problem and required sample sizes and consequently, financial costs.

Results

Tables 1a and 1b report frequencies of alleles associated with higher educational attainment (“beneficial” for short) for the 14 populations of 1000 Genomes and the 11 HapMap populations (list-wise deletion of missing data). Frequencies of the 10 SNPs were averaged for each population, so as to obtain a single reliable value (or polygenic score) that also avoided the problem of multiple comparisons. The polygenic score is reported in the last column. The results are similar across the HapMap and 1000 Genomes data sets: East Asian populations (Japanese, Chinese) have the highest average frequency of “beneficial” alleles (39%), followed by Europeans (35.5%) and sub-Saharan Africans (16.4%).

{snip}

Discussion
The national ranking for scores on standardized tests of educational attainment closely mirrors the gradient observed in frequencies of genes associated with this construct. East Asians have the highest frequencies of alleles beneficial to educational attainment (39%) and consistently outperform other racial groups both within the US and around the world, in terms of educational variables such as completion of college degree or results on standardized tests of scholastic achievement. Europeans have slightly lower frequencies of educational attainment alleles (35.5%) and perform slightly worse in terms of educational attainment, compared to East Asians. On the other hand, Africans seem to be disadvantaged both with regards to their level of educational attainment in the US and around the world. Indeed, Africans have the lowest frequencies of alleles associated with educational attainment (16%).
What a beautiful piece of tortured logic. Take two completely independent phenomena that are both correlated with ethnicity and claim connection.
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Old 01-13-2014, 03:35 PM   #6
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What a beautiful piece of tortured logic. Take two completely independent phenomena that are both correlated with ethnicity and claim connection.
Why not, liberals do that with global warming, cooling, climate change(pick your flavor of the month)all the time.
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Old 01-13-2014, 04:01 PM   #7
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Why not, liberals do that with global warming, cooling, climate change(pick your flavor of the month)all the time.
Ahh, no, they don't.

But trying to educate you on the science is a waste of time.
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Old 01-15-2014, 03:07 PM   #8
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Ahh, no, they don't.

But trying to educate you on the science is a waste of time.
, yes you do, meanwhile having nothing to say about China and India. You're frauds and hypocrites.
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Old 01-16-2014, 06:27 AM   #9
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Originally Posted by gyldenlove View Post
What a beautiful piece of tortured logic. Take two completely independent phenomena that are both correlated with ethnicity and claim connection.
Tortured logic? The only tortured logic is your failed attempt to inject your politically correct biases into SCIENCE because the findings don't fit in with a particular narrative.
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Old 01-16-2014, 07:19 AM   #10
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Originally Posted by gyldenlove View Post
What a beautiful piece of tortured logic. Take two completely independent phenomena that are both correlated with ethnicity and claim connection.
It must be pure coincidence that those who routinely score the highest in IQ have split the atom and put a man on the moon, while those who routinely score the lowest are over represented on police blotters and in prisons.
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Old 01-16-2014, 08:03 AM   #11
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It must be pure coincidence that those who routinely score the highest in IQ have split the atom and put a man on the moon, while those who routinely score the lowest are over represented on police blotters and in prisons.
And as racist trolls on the Intertubes.
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Old 01-22-2014, 10:15 AM   #12
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Originally Posted by gyldenlove View Post
What a beautiful piece of tortured logic. Take two completely independent phenomena that are both correlated with ethnicity and claim connection.
No - Global warming is actually caused by the alarming reduction in the overall number of pirates:

http://www.forbes.com/sites/erikaand...lobal-warming/


Simultaneity does not imply causality.
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Old 01-22-2014, 10:51 AM   #13
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No - Global warming is actually caused by the alarming reduction in the overall number of pirates:

http://www.forbes.com/sites/erikaand...lobal-warming/


Simultaneity does not imply causality.
Cell phones are caused by cancer.

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Old 01-22-2014, 10:56 AM   #14
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It must be pure coincidence that those who routinely score the highest in IQ have split the atom and put a man on the moon, while those who routinely score the lowest are over represented on police blotters and in prisons.
Why are you dragging Germans and Brits into this? They aren't part of the study at all.

By that token I would say money causes intelligence. Those with high incomes tend to have a high proportion of alleles associated with being white, and those who are poor tend to have a high proportion of alleles associated with being black or Hispanic.
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Old 01-22-2014, 11:09 AM   #15
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It must be pure coincidence that those who routinely score the highest in IQ have split the atom and put a man on the moon, while those who routinely score the lowest are over represented as bigots and racists, on police blotters and in prisons.
FYP and you're welcome.
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Old 01-22-2014, 08:39 PM   #16
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This is the first time I've seen someone post "don't shoot the messenger", and then copy and paste a "message" without letting us know who sent the message.

Teebs: "Don't argue with me. It's SCIENCE. It fits my beliefs, so it's doesn't matter who the scientist is. I'll use my red and orange crayons to highlight the really, really important parts so you don't miss them"
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Old 01-23-2014, 06:35 AM   #17
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Why are you dragging Germans and Brits into this? They aren't part of the study at all.

By that token I would say money causes intelligence. Those with high incomes tend to have a high proportion of alleles associated with being white, and those who are poor tend to have a high proportion of alleles associated with being black or Hispanic.
You're not even in the ballpark on your comparison.....money causes intelligence?

This is a study that was conducted trying to uncover a genetic basis for increased intelligence in some groups versus others. Just because you subscribe to the "FLAT EARTH" theory doesn't make it true.

Again, why do you even attempt to postulate that the alleles studied have nothing to do with likelihood of intelligence? and British and Germans are European the last time I checked....
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Old 01-26-2014, 01:21 AM   #18
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link please
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Old 01-27-2014, 06:16 AM   #19
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Hunter-gatherer European had blue eyes and dark skin

txteturd's great-great-great-[...]-great-grandpappy. Who knew he was a ****er?

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Old 01-27-2014, 07:57 AM   #20
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Studies show that racists have lower IQs than non-racists. It's been confirmed that racists have an average IQ of two digits. Normal People have an average IQ of three digits. Several studies suggest that there is a strong correlation between intolerance, racism, and prejudice in general, with reduced cognitive ability, and lower integrative complexity (putting different, separate, ideas together). In an analysis of two large-scale data sets, it was found that lower intelligence in childhood predicted greater racism in adulthood. A secondary analysis of a U.S. Data set, also confirmed a predictive effect of poor abstract-reasoning skills. People with lower cognitive abilities were found to interact less with individuals of other races.
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Old 01-28-2014, 07:31 PM   #21
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Quote:
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Studies show that racists have lower IQs than non-racists. It's been confirmed that racists have an average IQ of two digits. Normal People have an average IQ of three digits. Several studies suggest that there is a strong correlation between intolerance, racism, and prejudice in general, with reduced cognitive ability, and lower integrative complexity (putting different, separate, ideas together). In an analysis of two large-scale data sets, it was found that lower intelligence in childhood predicted greater racism in adulthood. A secondary analysis of a U.S. Data set, also confirmed a predictive effect of poor abstract-reasoning skills. People with lower cognitive abilities were found to interact less with individuals of other races.
Unscientific ad hominem because you don't like the outcome of decades of testing? Do you normally have this reaction to science? Do you have any concept what IQ averages globally show? It has nothing to do with one's ideology.
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Old 01-30-2014, 11:10 PM   #22
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Do you have any concept what IQ averages globally show?
It shows that IQ averages for racists are four points lower than the average for non-racists.
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Old 01-31-2014, 04:59 AM   #23
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Unscientific ad hominem because you don't like the outcome of decades of testing? Do you normally have this reaction to science? Do you have any concept what IQ averages globally show? It has nothing to do with one's ideology.
Science only counts and is "true" when it "proves" and supports the liberal agenda. Yes, they are that childish.
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