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Old 12-05-2018, 03:11 PM   #1
El Minion
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Default Bringing balance to the universe: New theory could explain missing 95 percent of the cosmos

5% of observable universe surfing on the "invisible" 95%, what is in that 95% (Having visions of H. P. Lovecraft and Netflix's StrangerThings)

Bringing balance to the universe: New theory could explain missing 95 percent of the cosmos

Scientists at the University of Oxford may have solved one of the biggest questions in modern physics, with a new paper unifying dark matter and dark energy into a single phenomenon: a fluid which possesses 'negative mass." If you were to push a negative mass, it would accelerate towards you. This astonishing new theory may also prove right a prediction that Einstein made 100 years ago.

Our current, widely recognised model of the Universe, called LambdaCDM, tells us nothing about what dark matter and dark energy are like physically. We only know about them because of the gravitational effects they have on other, observable matter.

This new model, published today in Astronomy and Astrophysics, by Dr. Jamie Farnes from the Oxford e-Research Centre, Department of Engineering Science, offers a new explanation. Dr. Farnes says: "We now think that both dark matter and dark energy can be unified into a fluid which possesses a type of 'negative gravity," repelling all other material around them. Although this matter is peculiar to us, it suggests that our cosmos is symmetrical in both positive and negative qualities."

The existence of negative matter had previously been ruled out as it was thought this material would become less dense as the Universe expands, which runs contrary to our observations that show dark energy does not thin out over time. However, Dr. Farnes' research applies a 'creation tensor," which allows for negative masses to be continuously created. It demonstrates that when more and more negative masses are continually bursting into existence, this negative mass fluid does not dilute during the expansion of the cosmos. In fact, the fluid appears to be identical to dark energy.

Dr. Farnes's theory also provides the first correct predictions of the behaviour of dark matter halos. Most galaxies are rotating so rapidly they should be tearing themselves apart, which suggests that an invisible 'halo' of dark matter must be holding them together. The new research published today features a computer simulation of the properties of negative mass, which predicts the formation of dark matter halos just like the ones inferred by observations using modern radio telescopes.

Albert Einstein provided the first hint of the dark universe exactly 100 years ago, when he discovered a parameter in his equations known as the 'cosmological constant," which we now know to be synonymous with dark energy. Einstein famously called the cosmological constant his 'biggest blunder," although modern astrophysical observations prove that it is a real phenomenon. In notes dating back to 1918, Einstein described his cosmological constant, writing that 'a modification of the theory is required such that "empty space" takes the role of gravitating negative masses which are distributed all over the interstellar space." It is therefore possible that Einstein himself predicted a negative-mass-filled universe.

Dr. Farnes says: "Previous approaches to combining dark energy and dark matter have attempted to modify Einstein's theory of general relativity, which has turned out to be incredibly challenging. This new approach takes two old ideas that are known to be compatible with Einstein's theory—negative masses and matter creation—and combines them together.

"The outcome seems rather beautiful: dark energy and dark matter can be unified into a single substance, with both effects being simply explainable as positive mass matter surfing on a sea of negative masses."

Proof of Dr. Farnes's theory will come from tests performed with a cutting-edge radio telescope known as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an international endeavour to build the world's largest telescope in which the University of Oxford is collaborating.

Dr. Farnes adds: "There are still many theoretical issues and computational simulations to work through, and LambdaCDM has a nearly 30 year head start, but I'm looking forward to seeing whether this new extended version of LambdaCDM can accurately match other observational evidence of our cosmology. If real, it would suggest that the missing 95% of the cosmos had an aesthetic solution: we had forgotten to include a simple minus sign."


Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-12-univer...osmos.html#jCp
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Old 12-05-2018, 03:18 PM   #2
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Bizarre ‘dark fluid’ with negative mass could dominate the universe – what my research suggests
Jamie Farnes December 5, 2018 1.03am EST

It’s embarrassing, but astrophysicists are the first to admit it. Our best theoretical model can only explain 5% of the universe. The remaining 95% is famously made up almost entirely of invisible, unknown material dubbed dark energy and dark matter. So even though there are a billion trillion stars in the observable universe, they are actually extremely rare.

The two mysterious dark substances can only be inferred from gravitational effects. Dark matter may be an invisible material, but it exerts a gravitational force on surrounding matter that we can measure. Dark energy is a repulsive force that makes the universe expand at an accelerating rate. The two have always been treated as separate phenomena. But my new study, published in Astronomy and Astrophysics, suggests they may both be part of the same strange concept – a single, unified “dark fluid” of negative masses.

Negative masses are a hypothetical form of matter that would have a type of negative gravity – repelling all other material around them. Unlike familiar positive mass matter, if a negative mass was pushed, it would accelerate towards you rather than away from you.

Negative masses are not a new idea in cosmology. Just like normal matter, negative mass particles would become more spread out as the universe expands – meaning that their repulsive force would become weaker over time. However, studies have shown that the force driving the accelerating expansion of the universe is relentlessly constant. This inconsistency has previously led researchers to abandon this idea. If a dark fluid exists, it should not thin out over time.

In the new study, I propose a modification to Einstein’s theory of general relativity to allow negative masses to not only exist, but to be created continuously. “Matter creation” was already included in an early alternative theory to the Big Bang, known as the Steady State model. The main assumption was that (positive mass) matter was continuously created to replenish material as the universe expands. We now know from observational evidence that this is incorrect. However, that doesn’t mean that negative mass matter can’t be continuously created. I show that this assumed dark fluid is never spread too thinly. Instead it behaves exactly like dark energy.

I also developed a 3D computer model of this hypothetical universe to see if it could also explain the physical nature of dark matter. Dark matter was introduced to explain the fact that galaxies are spinning much faster than our models predict. This implies that some additional invisible matter must be present to prevent them from spinning themselves apart.

My model shows that the surrounding repulsive force from dark fluid can also hold a galaxy together. The gravity from the positive mass galaxy attracts negative masses from all directions, and as the negative mass fluid comes nearer to the galaxy it in turn exerts a stronger repulsive force onto the galaxy that allows it to spin at higher speeds without flying apart. It therefore appears that a simple minus sign may solve one of the longest standing problems in physics.

Is the universe really this weird?

One may argue that this sounds a little far fetched. But while negative masses are bizarre, they are considerably less strange than you may immediately think. For starters, these effects may only seem peculiar and unfamiliar to us, as we reside in a region dominated by positive mass.

Whether physically real or not, negative masses already have a theoretical role in a vast number of areas. Air bubbles in water can be modelled as having a negative mass. Recent laboratory research has also generated particles that behave exactly as they would if they had negative mass.

And physicists are already comfortable with the concept of negative energy density. According to quantum mechanics, empty space is made up of a field of fluctuating background energy that can be negative in places – giving rise to waves and virtual particles that pop into and out of existence. This can even create a tiny force that can be measured in the lab.

The new study could help solve many problems in modern physics. String theory, which is our best hope for unifying the physics of the quantum world with Einstein’s theory of the cosmos, is currently seen as being incompatible with observational evidence. However, string theory does suggest that the energy in empty space must be negative, which corroborates the theoretical expectations for a negative mass dark fluid.

Moreover, the team behind the groundbreaking discovery of an accelerating universe surprisingly detected evidence for a negative mass cosmology, but took the reasonable precaution of interpreting these controversial findings as “unphysical”.

The theory could also solve the problem of measuring the universe’s expansion. This is explained by the Hubble-Lemaître Law, the observation that more distant galaxies are moving away at a faster rate. The relationship between the speed and the distance of a galaxy is set by the “Hubble constant”, but measurements of it have continued to vary. This has led to a crisis in cosmology. Fortunately, a negative mass cosmology mathematically predicts that the Hubble “constant” should vary over time. Clearly, there is evidence that this weird and unconventional new theory deserves our scientific attention.

Where to go from here

The creator of the field of cosmology, Albert Einstein, did – along with other scientists including Stephen Hawking – consider negative masses. In fact, in 1918 Einstein even wrote that his theory of general relativity may have to be modified to include them.

Despite these efforts, a negative mass cosmology could be wrong. The theory seems to provide answers to so many currently open questions that scientists will – quite rightly – be rather suspicious. However, it is often the out-of-the-box ideas that provide answers to longstanding problems. The strong accumulating evidence has now grown to the point that we must consider this unusual possibility.

The largest telescope to ever be built – the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) – will measure the distribution of galaxies throughout the history of the universe. I’m planning to use the SKA to compare its observations to theoretical predictions for both a negative mass cosmology and the standard one – helping to ultimately prove whether negative masses exist in our reality.

What is clear is that this new theory generates a wealth of new questions. So as with all scientific discoveries, the adventure does not end here. In fact, the quest to understand the true nature of this beautiful, unified, and – perhaps polarised – universe has only just begun.
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Old 12-05-2018, 04:40 PM   #3
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Good stuff, thanks for sharing. Love to read up on this stuff.
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Old 12-05-2018, 04:52 PM   #4
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I knew I left that somewhere...
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Old 12-05-2018, 05:07 PM   #5
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BroncoSteven is going to go all Gene Kranz over this
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Old 12-05-2018, 06:10 PM   #6
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No one has ever presented a scintilla of hard evidence the dark matter even exists. It's one of the false narratives spun off by the Big Bang Theory.

Since there was no Big Bang, and no expanding universe, there's obviously no dark matter either.

The Hindus figured this out thousands of years ago -- but modern physicists still haven't found out! haha
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Old 12-05-2018, 06:11 PM   #7
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Sometimes I get negative mass where the sun don’t shine.
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Old 12-05-2018, 06:39 PM   #8
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No one has ever presented a scintilla of hard evidence the dark matter even exists. It's one of the false narratives spun off by the Big Bang Theory.

Since there was no Big Bang, and no expanding universe, there's obviously no dark matter either.

The Hindus figured this out thousands of years ago -- but modern physicists still haven't found out! haha
You ate a lot of paint chips as a kid, didn’t you?
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Old 12-05-2018, 06:44 PM   #9
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You ate a lot of paint chips as a kid, didn’t you?
The dark matter theory barely qualifies as a hypothesis - given the absence of hard evidence. The evidence that does exist is better explained in other ways.
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Old 12-05-2018, 06:56 PM   #10
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It's all the missing keys, socks, pet toys, kids toys, the good scissors, working pens, &c., &c.
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Old 12-05-2018, 07:02 PM   #11
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It's all the missing keys, socks, pet toys, kids toys, the good scissors, working pens, &c., &c.
Call our dryers "Dark Matter" or "Dark Energy".
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Old 12-05-2018, 07:11 PM   #12
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The dark matter theory barely qualifies as a hypothesis - given the absence of hard evidence. The evidence that does exist is better explained in other ways.
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Old 12-05-2018, 07:29 PM   #13
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Can the Big Bang disciples explain this? (hint: no they cannot.)
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Old 12-05-2018, 07:39 PM   #14
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Can the Big Bang disciples explain this? (hint: no they cannot.)
Of course.

Too bad you weren't a follower of Do.
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Old 12-05-2018, 07:42 PM   #15
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Can the Big Bang disciples explain this?
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Old 12-05-2018, 08:00 PM   #16
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Can the Big Bang disciples explain this?
Well freckled a-hole?
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Old 12-05-2018, 08:16 PM   #17
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Well freckled a-hole?
I was thinking upside-down crooked b&w photo of a ginger with a real narrow Brazilian.

Or something like that.
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Old 12-05-2018, 08:17 PM   #18
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Well freckled a-hole?
Or a very dirty copier used to make an ass pic of a woman in white pants.
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Old 12-05-2018, 08:21 PM   #19
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antitail

Dumbass.
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Old 12-05-2018, 08:35 PM   #20
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Gaff bounces seamlessly between Mideast sociopolitical expert and Astrophysicist.

A true Sheldon.
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Old 12-05-2018, 09:42 PM   #21
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Gaff bounces seamlessly between Mideast sociopolitical expert and Astrophysicist.

A true Sheldon.
In between selling sand candles and patchouli at the flea market.
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