I vote for a Ruger M77 in .308 caliber. There is plenty of ammo and fairly inexpensive. Not quite the distance of a 30.06 but still deadly at 500 yards. The magazine holds 10....better than most rifles. A very good used one can be found for about$800 on Gunbroker.
For small game and target shooting go with a Ruger Mini-14. Shoots .223/5.56 and fits your price range. Accuracy beyond 200 yards is suspect.