Originally Posted by Fedaykin
Note even remotely true. Both weapons will fire their respective projectiles with a similar ballistic trajectory (i.e. drop and velocity curves), but their effectiveness (i.e. accuracy and energy delivery) will vary greatly. A 30-06 fires a much more massive projectile, which means it has a much longer effective range. A 62gr projectile (from an AR-15) is not going to be as accurate or as deadly as a 180gr projectile (180gr is the typical for a hunting round, 220gr is the max).
There's a reason sniper rifles fire the most massive rounds. A more massive round is more stable, is less affected by wind (both resistance and crosswind), and delivers more energy to the target. When coupled with a soft nosed bullet a 30-06 is a great large game rifle (hence it's popularity as a sporting rifle).
With a 220gr bullet a 30-06 is an effective rifle at easily 1000m or more. Obviously this would require an expert marksmen (just like any long range shot), but the rifle itself is capable of delivering a projective with deadly force at that range. The round has been used for confirmed kills at that range.
As points of comparison. At ~550m a 180gr 30-06 round still retains more ballistic energy than the AR-15 started with. A 1000m, the 30-06 retains more ballistic energy than the AR-15 has @ 150m. And that isn't even the most energetic round a 30-06 is capable of firing.
A light, high penetration round is not what you want for hunting large game. It's much less likely to enable a clean kill at long range, and at short range you're going to get over penetration which is also something you don't want. Putting a nice clean hole through a boar is less desirable than making sure that bullet stays in the boar.
That's all nice and what not, but it has nothing to do with what I posted.
"maximum effective range"
means......it is the distance
at which a weapon can effectively be considered accurate
. It has nothing to do with which round is more effective at maiming or delivering a more effective impact.