Cyclical life of the Universe
There are several views of the life of the Universe.
- In the Big Crunch Theory, gravity slows expansion of Universe before contracting it back to a point of infinite density. Once critical mass at that point is reached, it explodes as pure energy through space and time (The Big Bang) to begin again as a different Universe. Some questions are where in the Universe this 'next Bang' takes place and how can the Universe coalesce to a point when the shear size of the Universe prevents gravitational interaction.
- Another view is the Universe exploded from nothing and, because of Dark Energy, will continue to expand and cool to become growing dead space. It's a one-shot event that doesn't address where the 'Bang' came from, only that it happened and relies on mythical Dark Energy.
- A sociologic view is there are multiple universes and when two collide, they combine to spark a new 'Bang', but doesn't address where these 'parent' universes came from, how many there are or how they collide. It just does and sounds cool.
In my earlier post about the structure of the Universe (pic above), I explained away Dark Energy and in doing so, explained how the Universe would collapse back as in the Big Crunch Theory. But I didn't explain how that matter could become a single point to initiate a new Big Bang.
Here's the Theory
This may be a bit to wrap your head around, but....
As mass (everything seen in the Universe) begins collapsing back to the center of the Universe, they will not
head toward the same point in space. In the 3D ball I showed, all matter is heading toward a single coordinate at the center, but would be separated in space like the stretching surface of the ball.
At the heart of every Black Hole is a gravitational singularity, or point so dense it distorts spacetime to infinity. SciFi authors have used this idea to propose wormhole travel by voyaging into Black Holes. I'd propose these singularities are, somewhat similarly, the central coordinate of the Universe where all singularities exist. This distortion to infinity would allow the gravitational singularity to instantly reach this central coordinate, despite how 'far away' the Black Hole and surrounding system are.
Though there would be no immediate interaction of these singularities, as nothing can occur where time is stopped, it is the eventual interaction across spacetime at this point that initiates the next Big Bang. All Black Holes continue to consume matter, causing them to grow in size, gravity and the distortion they create in spacetime. At some point, two supermassive Black Holes become large enough for an Einstein-Rosen Bridge (wormhole) to connect more than just the singularities, but surrounding mass/energy.
That's the spark that ignites the 'Bang'.
So what happens with the rest of the Universe?
- explaining Inflation and Cosmic Strings
At this conjoining of two gravitational singularities, their surrounding supermassive Black Holes each
instantly take on the gravity (spacetime distortion) equal to the combined mass of the two, even though the mass of the Universe has not increased. Further, other gravitational singularities too small to previously react can now conjoin with this new 'Universal Singularity'. A rapid chain reaction takes place with all singularities combining into one, with each surrounding Black Hole exponentially increasing in gravity. Even Black Holes that were nothing more than the remains of a solar systems would now have the collective gravity of the 'Universal Singularity'.
That's the dawn of a 'Hyper-Crunch' of the Universe as everything is immediately pulled into Black Holes. I'd propose that once enough mass from the Universe had been pulled into the 'Universal Singularity', energy becomes high enough to create an explosion along a new time vector. The pre-existing universe would continue to collapse while a new one is created independently.
That's the Big Bang that created the Universe.
Inflation is the idea that immediately after the Big Bang, when everything was a soup of energy too hot to create even subatomic particles, the Universe expanded at a rate faster than light. The excuse was this space is empty and therefore doesn't violate the speed of light. In truth, it isn't empty space and the Inflation Theory had a serious fault. But if the time immediately following the Big Bang included massive injection of mass/energy from a pre-existing, collapsing universe, it changes the calculations requiring inflation and eliminates its necessity in explaining what happened.
Meaning, no more Inflation Theory.
Some matter, in the deepest parts of empty space, would be too far from galaxies to be pulled in during the Big Bang and following inflation. That's where Cosmic Strings come in. A Cosmic String is theorized as a near-1D line that may have had a small impact (less than 10%) on matter coalescing into the first gravitational bodies at the beginning of the Universe. Their nature and even existence is currently up for debate.
Going back to the 'ball pic', consider the collapsing universe as the ball turning to 'all-spikes'. The original surface would be crushing into the center, while the areas of near-empty space continue growing, but become increasingly thin. After the 'new' Big Bang occurs, the matter remaining in these spikes would be the last of the 'old universe' to reach the 'Universal Singularity' and move into the next universe. In doing so, it makes the spike thinner and thinner. In the early Universe, these 'spikes', or Cosmic Strings, would still have width and some gravity, creating 'seeds' for the first atoms to congeal around. Once all the 'old' matter has been consumed these 'spikes', or last remnants of the dying universe, would become nothing more than completely 1-dimensional empty space, cease to exist and no longer effect formation of the new universe.
The above is the actual map -a stretched globe- of cosmic background radiation around 320,000yrs after the Big Bang when the first particles were formed and began emitting radiation. The red is areas with the highest densities of matter and makes a blueprint for how all matter was dispersed into our Universe today. I'd propose that this is also a negative of the earlier universe, where the least dense regions of it created Cosmic Strings during collapse and thus, formed higher densities of the new Universe. Likewise, the large blue/black areas contained the largest galaxy clusters and, probably, where the first 'sparks' of our Universe began.