You'll also notice a few parallels with the War of the Roses - The House of Stark = House of York. House of Lannister = House of Lancaster, etc. Richard III (one of the Bard's best villains) was a dwarf. etc., etc.
But this only goes so far. Martin mixes all kinds of plots and issues into his story.
The other theme it might help to know is the role of magic. In this world, there was a time when magic really worked and magical creatures did their thing - more than just legends.
Eventually, it all faded away, and at the time the story begins, it's a very "low-magic" environment. A dire beast here and there. Some petrified dragon eggs. An occasional dream or prophesy.
Slowly but surely, that's gonna change.