If you develop the economy, and have an environment where people actually have a chance to better themselves, and put the full consequences of childbirth on the parents (fathers included), birth rates aren't too much of a problem. People with something to lose don't tend to keep birthing babies. They might make a stupid mistake, but they learn from the first one. (And one kid per mother isn't contributing to overpopulation).
Make people actually pay their own way (and their family's), and they tend to start acting like the middle class. Working, saving, and making better decisions.
We need to become a society where everyone feels like he has a stake in the neighborhood, or feels like he has a nest egg that he's preserving. People self-police most of these behaviors then.