||08-10-2013 10:52 PM
Are you smarter than a 8th Grader From 1912?
Question #1: The liver is the largest gland in the body. It lies below the diaphragm in the abdominal-pelvic region of the abdomen. It secretes bile.
Question #2: The likely intent of this questions was to determine the elements of the human cardiovascular system which include the heart, lungs, and blood vessels.
Question #3: The heart is the vital organ of the body that pumps the blood. It is about the size of a fist. The four sections of the human heart are the left atrium, right atrium, left ventricle, and right ventricle.
Question #4: Arteries distribute oxygenated blood throughout the body, while veins carry de-oxygenated blood to the heart. The liver and kidneys purify the blood. Note: H.L. King of Lexington KY points out that "arteries channel blood away from the heart, veins channel it toward the heart. The key is to note that the pulmonary artery channels oxygen-depleted blood from the right ventricle to the lungs. It then returns, oxygenated, to the left atrium via the pulmonary veins."
Question #5: The body's chief nervous center include first the brain and then the spinal cord.
Question #6: The Cerebellum, located just above the brain stem, controls balance, equilibrium and fine movement coordination. The Cerebrum is located in the front portion of the forebrain, and determines intelligence, personality, interpretation of sensory impulses and motor function. It also helps with planning and organization as well as touch sensation.
Question #7: The spinal column supports the body and provides protection for the spinal cord.
Question #8: We should study physiology so that we can better understand our body and how to better take care of it, as well as understand the functioning of other creatures. A good understanding of physiology (how the body works) is the basis of all medicine. Without knowing how the body works, how it is made up and how it can go wrong, we cannot even begin to design effective treatments and interventions, including surgery or new pharmaceutical drugs.
Question #9: Eat right, exercise; get proper sleep, drink plenty of water, maintain proper hygiene (other answers possible).
"Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens participate equally - either directly or through elected representatives - in the proposal, development, and creation of laws. It encompasses social, economic and cultural conditions that enable the free and equal practice of political self-determination." [Wikipedia] While a number of countries today are considered democracies, in 1912 the number was much smaller, and it is likely the expected example was the United States of America.
Limited or constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the guidelines of a constitution. The likely answer in 1912 would have been Great Britain.
In an absolute monarchy, the monarch wields unrestricted political power over the sovereign state and its people. Until 1905 the Tsars of Russia governed as absolute monarchs. One example that might not be obvious would have been the head of the Roman Catholic Church who rules over Vatican City.
A republic is a government where the head of state is not a monarch. Leadership positions are directly or indirectly elected or appointed rather than inherited. In 1912 an example might have been the Republic of France.
Question #2: As citizens of the United States, the Commonwealth of Kentucky, the county of Bullitt, and the local school system, these students would be subject to the jurisdiction of the local school board, and the county, state, and federal governments.
Question #3: The students may have been required to identify the current officers by name, but we will assume they were to identify them by office.
The county judge in 1912 served both as an executive head of county government and as a judicial judge. He was also a member of the county fiscal court, the legislative body of the county.
Magistrates served as members of the fiscal court, and also had minor judicial duties.
The sheriff and his deputies were responsible for enforcing the law within the county.
The county court clerk had multiple duties including serving as the county court's clerk and clerk of the fiscal court. He was also responsible for maintaining county records including deeds, marriage records, and wills.
The county jailer was responsible for overseeing the incarceration of prisoners.
Question #4: The federal government is composed of three distinct branches: legislative, executive and judicial. The legislative branch includes the Congress (Senate and House of Representatives) which is responsible for the passage of all federal laws as outlined in the Constitution. The executive branch includes the president and vice president along with the various executive cabinets. The president is the head of state and commander in chief of the armed forces. He has the responsibility of negotiating treaties, and appointing cabinet members with the concurrence of the Senate. The judicial branch is responsible for interpretation of laws, and in determining the outcome of civil and criminal cases. It is headed by the Supreme Court.
Question # 5: The president is constitutionally obligated to "take care that the laws be faithfully executed." He appoints ambassadors, member of his Cabinet, and federal judges with the advice and consent of the Senate. He directs foreign policy and is commander in chief of the armed forces. He has the power of the veto whereby all bills passed by Congress must be presented to him. He may sign the bill, allowing it to become law; he may veto it and return it to Congress with his objections; or he may take no action. If he vetoes the bill, Congress may override his veto by voting two-thirds majority approval. If he takes no action for ten working days, and Congress is still in session, then the bill becomes law without his signature. However if Congress has adjourned, the bill does not become law. This is commonly known as a pocket veto.
Question #6: Only Congress can declare war. Only Congress can impeach (House), try (Senate), and remove office holders, including the President and Supreme Court Justices from office. Only Congress can raise and lower taxes.
Congress can not pass a law that turns an act into a crime after the act was committed; accept a title of nobility; suspend writ of habeas corpus (except under special circumstances); pass a Bill of Attainder (which means they can't punish anyone or group without a trial); tax any goods exported from any state; and Congress cannot vote themselves a pay raise during their current term in office.
(Note that this answer is not exactly correct for 1912. Constitutional amendments changed the Congressional powers over the years.)
Question #7: How many presidential electors are each state allowed? Each state receives a number of presidential electors in the electoral college equal to the number of congressional districts in that state (which varies by state population, but is never less than one) plus the number of senators (always two). At the time of this test, Kentucky had 13 electoral votes out of 531 electoral votes nationwide. Today Kentucky has 8 electoral votes out of 538 nationwide.
Question #8: The president and vice-president of the United States must be a natural born citizen of the United States, be at least thirty-five years old, and have been a permanent resident in the United States for at least fourteen years. The governor of Kentucky must be at least thirty years of age and have resided in the state for at least six years preceding the general election; and never fought a duel.
Question #9. Copyright is a legal concept, enacted by most governments, giving the creator of an original work exclusive rights to it, usually for a limited time. A patent is a form of intellectual property. It consists of a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or their assignee for a limited period of time, in exchange for the public disclosure of the invention.
Question #10: The president and vice-president are selected by a group of electors known as the electoral college. Each state is granted a number of electors equal to the number of its members of the United States Congress (Senate and House of Representatives). To be elected, the president and vice-president, running as a team, must receive a majority of the electoral votes. If no one receives a majority, then the members of the House of Representatives select the president. Each state receives one vote, with its representatives voting as a bloc.
Although there is no legal requirement to do so, a state's electors almost always cast their ballots according to how the state's citizens voted in the general election.
Question #1. Juan Ponce de León made the first European expedition to Florida, which he named. Vasco Núñez de Balboa is best known for having crossed the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific Ocean. Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto became the first recorded European to reach the Mississippi River. Jacques Cartier was the first European to describe and map the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the shores of the Saint Lawrence River.
These are likely the expected answers on the 1912 test. Although Native Americans were present in these places before the arrival of the Europeans, the names of their people who first visited these sites are lost in the mists of time.
Question #2: Sir Walter Raleigh was an English aristocrat, writer, poet, soldier, courtier, spy, and explorer. He is also well known for popularizing tobacco in England. In 1594, Raleigh heard of a "City of Gold" in South America and sailed to find it without success. For various reasons, he was executed in 1618.
Peter Stuyvesant served as the last Dutch Director-General of the colony of New Netherland from 1647 until it was ceded to the English in 1664, after which it was renamed New York. He was a major figure in the early history of New York City.
In November 1732 the ship Anne sailed from Britain carrying 114 colonists, including General James Oglethorpe, who settled at what became Savannah, Georgia.
Maryland was first settled by mainly Roman Catholic families led by the Calvert family as a place where they could freely practice their faith.
The first English settlers in Massachusetts, the Pilgrims, established their settlement at Plymouth in 1620.
In 1636, Roger Williams, after being banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious views, settled at the tip of Narragansett Bay, on land that would become Rhode Island. A number of non-Puritan colonists as well as those that believed in religious freedom joined him.
Florida has had a long history of immigration, including French and Spanish settlement during the 16th century, as well as entry of new Native American groups migrating from elsewhere in the South. Florida was under colonial rule by Spain and Great Britain during the 18th and 19th centuries before becoming a territory in 1822 of the United States.
The Battle of Brandywine was fought between the American army of Major General George Washington and the British army of General Sir William Howe on September 11, 1777 during the Revolutionary War.
The Battle of Fort Necessity, or the Battle of the Great Meadows took place on July 3, 1754 in Pennsylvania. The engagement was one of the first battles of the French and Indian War and George Washington's only military surrender.
The Battle of Lundy's Lane (also known as the Battle of Niagara Falls) was a battle of the War of 1812, which took place on 25 July 1814, in present-day Niagara Falls, Ontario.
The Battle of Antietam, also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg, was fought on Wednesday, September 17, 1862, near Sharpsburg, Maryland, and Antietam Creek, and was the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Union soil.
The Battle of Buena Vista, on February 23, 1847, saw the United States Army use artillery to repulse the much larger Mexican army in the Mexican-American War.
Question #5: The Battle of Quebec was fought on December 31, 1775 between American Continental Army forces and the British defenders of the city of Quebec, early in the American Revolutionary War. The battle was the first major defeat of the war for the Americans, and it came at a high price. General Richard Montgomery was killed, Benedict Arnold was wounded, and Daniel Morgan and more than 400 men were taken prisoner.
Question #6: The War of 1812 was a military conflict fought between the forces of the United States of America and those of the British Empire. The Americans declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions due to Britain's ongoing war with France, and the impressment of American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy. One major battle was the Battle of Baltimore, during which the National Anthem was created.
Question #7: Three Presidents who were assassinated (for this 1912 test) were Lincoln, McKinley, & Garfield. Presidents who died in office (but not assassinated) were William Henry Harrison, and Zachary Taylor.
Civil War: Battle of Columbus, Georgia on 16 Apr 1865; commanders were Union General James H. Wilson and Confederate Major General Howell Cobb. [See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Columbus_(1865)]
War of 1812: By date, the last battle was in February 1815 at Fort Bowyer, Alabama in which a British force of at least 3000 attacked a smaller American force of fewer than 400 led by fort commander William Lawrence who surrendered on 11 Feb 1815. However the generally recognized last battle of the war was the Battle of New Orleans with Andrew Jackson leading the Americans and Edward Pakenham among the British.
French and Indian War: Battle of Signal Hill on 15 Sep 1762 with British forces led by William Amherst and French forces led by Guillaume de Bellecombe. [See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Signal_Hill]
Question #9: What President impeached? Andrew Johnson (who succeeded Lincoln) for violating the "Tenure of Office Act", when he sought to remove his Secretary of War without Senate approval. Republicans were mad at him for being lenient to the South.
Question #10: Magneto - Faraday; telegraph - Samuel Morse; cotton gin - Eli Whitney; sewing machine - generally, Elias Howe, though disputed; telephone - Alexander Graham Bell; phonograph - Thomas Alva Edison.
If you, the reader, have an interest in any particular part of our county history, and wish to contribute to this effort, use the form on our Contact Us page to send us your comments about this, or any Bullitt County History page. We welcome your comments and suggestions. If you feel that we have misspoken at any point, please feel free to point this out to us.
Thank you Libs and Dems.